How Magnets Work HowStuffWorks

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How Magnets Work HowStuffWorks

Even though an atom’s electrons don’t transfer very far, their movement is enough to create a tiny magnetic area. Since paired electrons spin in opposite directions, their magnetic fields cancel one another out. Atoms of ferromagnetic components, however, have several unpaired electrons that have the identical spin. Because they have no opposing fields to cancel their effects, these electrons have an orbital magnetic second. It’s related to each the magnetic subject power and the torque that the field exerts. A entire magnet’s magnetic moments come from the moments of all of its atoms. In magnets, on the other hand, most or all of the magnetic domains point in the same path.

Magnets intitlte:how

The magnetic area’s strains of drive exit the magnet from its north pole and enter its south pole. Permanent or onerous Magnets magnets create their very own magnetic subject all the time.


This magnetic vitality worth is about 18 occasions greater than “strange” ferrite magnets by volume and 12 instances by mass. This magnetic energy property is larger in NdFeB alloys than in samarium cobalt (SmCo) magnets, which were the first type of rare-earth magnet to be commercialized. In apply, the magnetic properties of neodymium magnets depend upon the alloy composition, microstructure, and manufacturing technique employed.

Magnetic fields can be used to make electricity

An electromagnet is produced from a coil of wire that acts as a magnet when an electric current passes by way of it but stops being a magnet when the present stops. Often, the coil is wrapped round a core of “gentle” ferromagnetic materials similar to gentle steel, which greatly enhances the magnetic area produced by the coil. In its pure kind, neodymium has magnetic properties—specifically, it is antiferromagnetic, however solely at low temperatures, under 19 K (−254.2 °C; −425.5 °F). However, some compounds of neodymium with transition metals corresponding to iron are ferromagnetic, with Curie temperatures well above room temperature.

Magnetizing ferromagnets

This explains why breaking a magnet in half creates two smaller magnets with north and south poles. It also explains why reverse poles appeal to — the field traces go away the north pole of 1 magnet and naturally enter the south pole of another, basically creating one bigger magnet. Like poles repel one another as a result of their strains of drive are touring in opposite directions, clashing with each other quite than transferring collectively. If the coil of wire is wrapped around a material with no particular magnetic properties (e.g., cardboard), it will are inclined to generate a really weak field. However, if it is wrapped around a gentle ferromagnetic materials, corresponding to an iron nail, then the net subject produced can lead to a a quantity of hundred- to thousandfold enhance of subject power.

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